Cybercrime in Canada

It is normal that during the course of human history criminals try to use most of the new inventions for their cause. While the Internet itself is very young it is already filled with various criminals that are committing frauds, stealing information, stalking or harassing people. And it is also natural that after some time the countries with most internet users created laws that allowed prosecuting the online criminals.

In Canada the definition of computer crime is taken from the international Convention on Cybercrime that occurred on November 23, 2001. Canada contributed, and is a signatory, to this international of criminal offences involving the use of computers: offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems; computer-related offences; content-related offences; offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights; and ancillary liability. Today Canada is in the stage of ratifying the Convention of Cybercrime, so in practice Canadian Criminal Code contains a set of laws for regulating the computer crimes, but it may view some of the offences in a different way. Still most of them are classified as following. The Offences against the confidentiality, integrity and availability of computer data and systems include: illegal access, illegal interception, data interference, system interference, misuse of devices. The computer-related offences include: computer-related forgery and computer-related fraud. The content-related offences include: offences related to child pornography. The offences related to infringements of copyright and related rights naturally include everything related to the violation of copyrights and digital rights. The ancillary liability offences include things like attempt and aiding or abetting and corporate liability. Computer crimes touch a lot of parts of the law so in Canada various sections of the Canadian Criminal Code deal with various computer crimes. The theft, forgery of credit cards and unauthorized use of computer is regulated by the Section 342. Privacy is regulated by section 184 and personation with section 403. Also some of the crimes are regulated with Bill C-46. As Canada has not yet ratified this Additional Protocol to the Convention on cybercrime its Criminal Code may not fully address the following criminal offences:

The computer crimes that are still partly excluded from the Canadian Criminal Code mostly deal with discrimination and include: dissemination of racist and xenophobic material through computer systems; racist and xenophobic motivated threat; racist and xenophobic motivated insult; denial, gross minimization, approval or justification of genocide or crimes against humanity; aiding and abetting.

Mostly the targets of the serious computer criminals are the companies and individuals from North America and Europe, so these governments that are mostly affected by cybercrime are giving a great effort on providing an appropriate legislation. The main problem of the Computer Crimes legislation is that the criminal itself can be from any part of the world, and at some points he will be protected by the local laws, or lack of local cybercrime laws. That’s why it is crucial for all the countries in the world to work together for a one good cause – an Internet Free of Crime.

San Fernando DUI Lawyer

If you live and work in San Fernando or are visiting and have been arrested for DUI, the first thing which you need to do prior to anything else is to get the services of San Fernando DUI Lawyer. The consequences of DUI charges when proven guilty before a judge or jury can be quite grave. Other than having to be with a suspended driver’s licence, there are chances you may face serious jail term if there were injuries or fatalities in case of car accident. Having DUI charges being preferred against you do not mean that it is the end of life. Having a DUI lawyer by your side will be more beneficial to you than deciding to go on your own.

Nevertheless, you need to know which lawyer you want to represent you at the hearing of your case. For example, there are the public defenders who are assigned to you when you cannot afford the services of a professional attorney and discount attorneys who may be affordable but detrimental to your case. Given the number of cases they have on their hands, they may not give you the much needed time. The best lawyer you will ever get to represent your interest is a professional San Fernando DUI lawyer. These are professional attorneys who have years of experience handling multiple DUI cases and have gained the experience and skills needed to see the case to success.

However, before making a decision on who you want to represent you, it is vital that you consider certain businesses aspect of the attorney you want to represent you. These are discussed herein:

Foremost, you need to establish if the attorney has any experience in DUI cases. The last thing you need is someone who does not have a clue on how to go about the hurdles that may come your way.

The Current Federal Minimum Wage

History of Minimum Wage Law The first form of minimum wage law was introduced in 1896, but instead of requiring employers to pay at least a guaranteed minimum wage amount, the law in its infancy only set up arbitration boards to prevent labor strikes. Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the colony of Victoria, Austria were the first to establish laws creating arbitration boards of this nature. The first of these laws were created in New Zealand in 1896 under the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act. 1899 is when Victoria, Austria came on board with arbitration counsels. In 1907, Australia set a “living wage” for a family of four.

The Trade Boards Act established arbitration boards in 1909 for the United Kingdom. In 1912, Massachusetts and the United States were the first to set minimum wages for women and children in an attempt to control the proliferation of sweat shops and manufacturing industries. It was not until the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 was passed in the U.S. that a national minimum wage standard was set for most workers in the public and private sector. The law for minimum wage in the US is mandated by FLSA guidelines and the current minimum wage standard is $7.25/ hour. Some states have yet to set a minimum wage law.

These states include Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Other states require employers to pay even more than the $7.25/ hour while other state standards are less than national standards. In cases where an employee is subject to both state and federal laws, the employee is entitled to the higher of the two. These laws were just the beginning. New employment and labor laws now include overtime laws, as well as mandatory overtime and employment law group exemption rules. State overtime laws vary widely. If you think you’re employer owes you overtime pay that was unfairly withheld, fill out our Case Evaluation Form to consult with a reliable overtime lawyer about the merits of your case.

This entry was posted in FLSA Overtime Blog and tagged fair labor standards act, flsa overtime law, minimum wage.

As United States citizens, our way of legally providing for others and ourselves is through a vocation. We work each week for an agreed upon wage. The median earning in 2007 for men who worked full time was $45,113. For women, the median earning for the year was $35,102 (U.S. Census Bureau). That would mean men earn $21.69 per hour, and $16.88 per hour for women. Now imagine living off almost half of that. Can it be done?

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, the federal minimum wage is $6.55 per hour. A single man or woman who works full time, who takes no vacations or sick days, will accumulate a pre-tax total of $13,624 for the year. That sum is roughly $21,000 less than what an average woman makes and $32,000 less than what the average man makes. After the IRS, Medicare, and Social Security take their total share of $1,510, one is left with only $12,114 net pay to be used for expenses and such for the year.

Essential expenses will come out of the net pay first, which includes shelter, food, clothing, and household items like soap, toothbrushes, and toothpaste. I recently saw a rental place charging $475 per month including utilities, so I will be using that amount as rent for this example. As for food, fresh produce and meats are out of the question due to their particularly high prices. The next best thing would be to purchase a box of pasta (macaroni and cheese or spaghetti) and peanut butter, which could replace the unobtainable fresh meats due to the fact that peanut butter is high in nutritional fat and protein. Though not extremely tasty, both would satisfy hunger needs, are high in calories and can be purchased for less than $5 per day. In other words, a minimum wage earner can feed them self for $1,825 a year. Clothing can easily be purchased at a thrift or discount store for $50 a month, and household necessities can be purchased for around $50 per month as well. This makes clothing and household necessities totaling to $1,200 per year. Collectively rent, food, clothing, and household items will cost a single, minimum wage earner $8,725 per year, leaving a net total of only a measly $3,389 per year.

Next would come secondary expenditures such as emergency funds, entertainment, and other miscellaneous expenses. At least $1,000 per month should be set aside for emergency purposes, and though that may not seem like a lot, with such a tight budget it will have to do. Another $1,000 could be set aside for miscellaneous expenses such as taking the bus or purchasing a bike because affording a car or gas for the car would be nearly impossible on such a small income. Entertainment in a predicament like this would be limited to buying a CD or going to see the matinee at a local movie theater. One could set aside $25 per month or $300 per year for such purposes. Also keep in mind the possibility of free entertainment like the use of public parks will help aid in ones search for low-cost entertainment. These particular expenses total $2,300, leaving us with a net total of merely $1,089 for the year. So once again these expenditures take an immense amount out of a minute net total.

As one can see, there is a thinning fine line between whether one can live off minimum wage or not. A yearly net total of just $1,089 does not leave room for fluctuation in how one spends their money. Even in the best-case scenario outlined in this example, it would be difficult for a minimum wage earner to take any time off of work. One day off for any circumstance will make it inevitably harder to live on minimum wage. If the wage earner is unable to locate and secure inexpensive housing and absolutely does not need a car, these expenses will indisputably make it near impossible to live with one minimum wage job. Also left out of this example were costly habits such as smoking, and the assumption that the earner did not accumulate debt, which both can be extremely costly. Sometimes so costly that it would reach a point where there would be no way of being able to live off current federal minimum wage. Minimum wage at this moment in time apparently does mean minimum living.

Some Effective Ideas on Labor Law And Safety Posters

Each and every state has its own law especially regarding labor. Sometimes the federal rules and the state rules may be different. But in that case, labors have to obey both of the rules. United Stateslabor law is the combination of both state law and federal law. So, to maintain the standard of the work, all the labors need to obey the state labor law which is generally warned using State labor law posters.

The combination of federal law and state law can protect the people from labor discrimination. State labor law posters vary from one state to other. California labor law posters are not only required by the US Department of Labor but also by the State ofCalifornia Government. The posers of state labor law can be on different topics like

Payday notice (to show the time of payment)Equal employment opportunity (to show the notice for equal employment opportunity for all people except child)Child labor laws (to stop child to work)

There may be more posters required for example- drug free workplace, no smoking, first aid and many more. SoCalifornialabor law posters are shown to for the notices that are related toCalifornialabors.Californialabor law posters can be of different notices like-

Safety & Health Protection Notice To Employees Harassment or Discrimination in the Workplace Time Off for Voting Unemployment Insurance Benefits Pay Day Notice Whistleblower’s Protection Act Minimum Wage Emergency Information

Also there are lots of Safety posters available. The safety posters are more used in work place for safety. The example of safety posters may be like bellow-

Keep your eyes on safetyMake safety a part of your workDare to be awareHealth and safety, words to live byLift with your legs, not your backUse your eyes, don’t lose themBetter to be safe than to be sorry!Be sure be safe

From the New Year, the wages for the labors will also be increased as the inflation rate has increased. 8 states among all will increase the minimum payment rate for workers. The expected increase in wage is 28 cents to 37 cents per hour for the statesArizona,Florida,Oregon,Montana,Ohio,Vermont,ColoradoandWashington. Some states still to declare any change for the next Hampshireis one of those states which will come with very minor changes in their state labor law posters. Now 2012 labor law poster are on the process of shipping along with the 2012 federal labor law posters, which also includes Employee Rights Posting that is required by the National Labor Relations Board.